Substitute Stones and Their Use
Agate comes in different colors—yellow, red, milk white, brown, and the less found blue and green colored stones. The best agate is found in Brazil and Uruguay, but the stone is also found in India and the USA. Sometimes agate is used as a substitute for red coral, but it is not a very effective one. Agates are good for those born under Virgo.
Those who wear agate get long life, family happiness, and prosperity. Their careers improve, and if they are farmers, they are benefited. Agates are also used to improve one’s health and financial stability. Agate, it is said, is good to use for countering curses and protecting against jealous rivalries. Physically, it is said to protect against bodily pains, headaches, and excess stomach acid.
Amethyst is a beautiful violet color and is the most valuable type of quartz. It is a good substitute for blue sapphire. The darker the color, the more effective it is.
Amethysts are mined in Brazil and Uruguay, but are also found in the USA, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), India, and Mexico. The Brazilian amethysts are considered the best, but the ones from Sri Lanka and India are also good quality. Imitation amethysts are often made from glass or synthetic sapphires. Synthetic amethyst is usually made in Russia.
Amethyst can be used to increase financial gain, for general physical well-being, position, and social status. It is said that amethyst will become brighter if it is placed next to a poisonous substance. It is also believed that the stone will change color if the wearer becomes ill.
It can be used with good benefit by social workers, scientists, mathematicians, scholars, and by those engaged in travel, public relations, entertainment, and fashion.
Amethyst is said to be good for those under Pisces or Aquarius, but can also be worn by those under Capricorn.
Hardness 6.75, Specific gravity 2.7, Refractive index 1.57–1.58
Aquamarine is said to be good for those born under Pisces or who have Jupiter well-placed on the ascendant of their birth chart. They are also good for those born under Leo.
Aquamarine is a variety of beryl. A good Aquamarine is transparent, lustrous, and radiant. It has many of the properties of emerald, and can substitute for that gem. Aquamarine is considered a semi-precious stone, and it is therefore much less expensive than an emerald. Aquamarine is often a bright sky blue. The blue color can be produced by heating greenish, greenish yellow, or brownish beryls. It is not good to use a heat-treated gem for astrological purposes. A good aquamarine should not have any inclusions.
Aquamarines are found in Siberia, the Ural Mountains in Russia, Madagascar, and Brazil.
Mothers derive good benefits from aquamarines, and the stones can help solve marital problems. They are also good for spiritual life and for those interested in humanitarian activities. They are beneficial for those in entertainment, teaching, banking, medicine, travel, sailing, or public relations business. They can also help improve personal problems, and they protect the wearers from being exploited. They help improve one’s investment abilities.
Bloodstone is an opaque, dark green stone with red spots. Excellent bloodstones shine brightly. Bloodstone is usually used as a birthstone. A person born under Aries or Scorpio can use this stone with good effect.
It is said that if a person wears bloodstone, he or she will be strong in business and defeat their enemies. They help one increase one’s followers, and they protect a wearer from drowning. They can be used to increase courage and mental concentration.
Natural citrine is hard to find, and most of the citrines on the market are actually heat-treated natural amethyst. Natural citrine, however, is a good substitute for yellow sapphire and topaz. Citrines resemble yellow sapphire, and are often sold as topaz, although topaz usually has a richer color.
Citrine comes from Brazil, Madagascar, Uruguay and France. The best gems come from Brazil. One who wears citrine will have undisturbed sleep.
Lapis Lazuli :
Hardness 5–5.5, Specific gravity 2.7–2.9, Reflective index 1.5
Lapis lazulis are good for those born under the solar sign of Taurus. They can also be of help in reference to Saturn. Lapis lazuli is a substitute gem for blue sapphire.
They are found mainly in Afghanistan and Chile, although Russia and the United States also mine this stone.
If a child wears a necklace of lapis lazuli beads on a gold chain, it is said that the child will maintain good health and be protected from the bad influences of an evil eye. Lapis lazuli is believed to help women who take part in music, art, dancing, and acting. It is said to help prevent laziness, to increase one’s social status, determination, and general happiness. Lapis lazuli also helps overcome depression, diabetes and eye, stomach, and liver problems.
Hardness 6, Specific gravity 2.57, Refractive index 1.51–1.52
Moonstone is an opaque, colorless gem that serves as a substitute for pearl. Moonstones usually have a silvery-white milky sheen called adularescence. There is a band of light, within the body of a moonstone, that is an interplay of light that moves when it is turned.
Some moonstones have a bluish opalescent sheen caused by the reflection of light. Most moonstones with this opalescent sheen are mined in Sri Lanka, and they are both rarer and more expensive than other types of moonstone because their main Sri Lankan source dried up in 1988. The bluer the stone, the more costly it is. The most expensive moonstones cost about US$700 per carat. Whitish stones have little value, and the palest stones are very cheap. Such moonstones are often made into beads.
Moonstones are also found in India, Switzerland, and Myanmar (Burma). Indian moonstones are usually low quality.
Moonstone gives good concentration, mental peace and upliftment, and can help with marriage problems, depression, stomach problems, heart problems, epilepsy, and gynecological problems.
Moonstone is more effective when worn during the bright half of the lunar month; it is weakened during the dark half. Moonstone should be set in silver and worn on the ring (although some say, little) finger.
Hardness 5.5–6.5, Specific gravity 2–2.25, Refractive index 1.44–1.47
Opal is hydrated amorphous silica. Opals are used as birthstones. They are said to be good for those born in October.
Opals with variable color changes and that are bright, have a good value. Black opal is rare, and is usually the most valuable. Most good quality opals are found in Australia, although they are generally processed in Asia. Opals are also found in Indonesia.
Opals refract light and then reflect it in a play of colors. Opals can be found in a wide selection of colors and patterns. Water is the main ingredient of opals, so do not allow them to dry out. Opals are easily scratched, especially when set in a ring. They can also be easily shattered either by hitting them or a rapid change in temperature.
Opals help with spiritual and religious life, finances, family life, and they improve one’s beauty. They help develop the ability to foretell the future, and many astrologers use them for this purpose. They can also help with legal cases.With use, opals become dull. After some time, they should be replaced.
Hardness 6.5–7, Specific gravity 3.22–3.44, Refractive index 1.64–1.69
Peridot is a semi-precious gem that can substitute for emerald. Peridots make up a group of minerals, but most are not used as gemstones. The stones used in jewelry are bright green in color. The greener the color, the more valuable the stone. Any tinge of brown in the stone reduces its value. The darker green stones are called olivines, the lighter green (ranging from yellowish green to bottle green) are called chrysolites. Peridot has an imperfect cleavage in two directions.
Some pale green stones are found in Queensland in Australia, Myanmar (Burma), Pakistan, Brazil, Kenya, China, and North America. Peridot is found in large quantities in small sizes of less than two carats in China. The main source of gem-quality peridot is found in Mogok, in Upper Myanmar (Burma).
Peridots are often mistaken for emeralds, but they are usually clearer, with less inclusions, and much less expensive. Because of peridot’s relative softness, care has to be taken to keep it from becoming scratched. The price of peridot per carat does not go up with an increase in stone size.One who wears peridot will gain wealth, happiness, good health, and have good children. Peridots are believed to cure epilepsy.
Specific gravity 3.6–4, Refractive index 1.72–1.8
Red spinel can substitute for ruby and blue spinel for blue sapphire. Spinels can be purple, pink, pink tinged with orange, green, and more rarely, blue. Red spinel is the most valuable. It is rare to find a spinel that weighs more than five carats. Spinel are beautiful, durable gemstones without cleavages and with a moderate dispersion.
Spinel is most commonly a brilliant red, and is often found where rubies are found. Thus people often mistake red spinel for ruby. Some of the well-known “rubies” in the British Crown jewelry collection are actually spinel. Spinel is mined mainly in Myanmar (Burma), although they are also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Afghanistan.
There are many synthetic spinels on the market, and people are often fooled.
Spinel is said to help the wearer financially, and can protect the wearer from unexpected losses.
Hardness 8, Specific gravity 3.5–3.6, Reflective index 1.6–1.64
Topaz has low dispersion and a cleavage perfect in one direction. Topaz is recommended for those whose solar sign is Gemini. It can also be worn by those under the signs of Libra and Scorpio.
Topazes can be orange-yellow, amber-gold, blue, purple, the color of sherry, brown, or pink. The most valuable topaz is known as Imperial topaz, and it is reddish gold. The pink and peach (brownish yellow) topazes are more costly than other colors. Blue topaz is the most common and the least expensive. Blue topaz comes mainly from China. It is colorless or white when it is mined, but irradiation changes the stone to an electric blue. If this is done improperly, the gem can become radioactive, and it is not recommended for astrological use when irradiated. Other topazes are found in Brazil, Russia, Ukraine, and Pakistan.
Topaz is a hard gem, but it cleaves easily, so a hard blow can crack it. A sudden change in temperature can also cause topaz to crack.
Topaz can have a good influence over the mind and soul. It helps one become more aware, happier, creative, improve one’s concentration, increases one’s intelligence, and helps one have better clarity of mind. It helps improve wealth, relieves depression, and helps one avoid misfortune. Topaz can help those with dangerous jobs, and can help make life more pleasant. It also helps a couple remain loyal to one another.Topaz works with the nervous system, relieves exhaustion, mental problems, and diseases of the solar plexus. It can help cure heart complications, migraines, liver problems, diarrhea, rheumatism, ulcers, insomnia, arthritis, jaundice, impotency, and gout.
Hardness 7–7.5, Specific gravity 3.1–3.25, Refractive index 1.61–1. 67
Tourmaline is found in a variety of colors. The variety is due to the chemical composition. Most tourmalines are composed of silicate and borate of aluminum or magnesia and iron. Tourmaline does not have a cleavage and is a durable gemstone.
Depending on the color, tourmalines are known by different names. Red and pink tourmalines are called rubellite; blue, Brazilian sapphires; colorless, achorite; yellow to yellow green, Ceylonese peridot; green, Brazilian emerald; and violet to red purple, siberite.
Brazil is the main source of tourmaline, but yellow and brown stones are found in Sri Lanka, reds and pinks in California, reds in Myanmar (Burma), reds and greens in Brazil and Russia, and reds, blues, and greens in the USA.
The colors of the stones can be changed by heating or irradiation, but the change is not always permanent. Tourmaline is often cut into a rectangular shape that follows its naturally long and narrow crystal formation. Green tourmaline is often mistaken for emerald, and the blue variety is mistaken for blue sapphire.
Wearing tourmaline increases the wearer’s intelligence, and improves concentration. Tourmaline can help someone financially and can be used as a general good-luck stone. Politicians and leaders can wear tourmaline to good effect. It should be set in silver.Different colors of tourmaline are used to substitute for diamonds, rubies, emeralds, blue sapphires, and yellow sapphires.
Hardness 5–6, Specific gravity 2.6–2.8, Refractive index 1.61–1.65
Turquoise is usually blue green to apple green; sky blue stones are not as common as most people think.
Turquoise is used as a birthstone. It maintains its color in artificial light. The color of turquoise fades over time. It should not be placed in water and should be handled carefully—it is a soft stone that is easy to scratch or break. Turquoise can become discolored by absorbing oils or pigments.Turquoise is found in Mexico, Australia, Egypt, Russia, Tibet, China, Afghanistan, and the USA. The main source is the USA’s northwestern states. Sometimes turquoise is painted with a blue dye, then coated in clear plastic. Pale and chalky turquoise is often treated with oil, clear plastic, or glycerin.If the stone fades just after it is first put on, it should not be used. It is believed that turquoise will change color to warn the wearer of coming disaster.
One who wears turquoise will find happiness, joy, and honesty. Turquoise can be worn by aristocratic and spiritually-minded people to good benefit. It is said to protect one from curses, violence, accidental death, and enemies. If it is placed against the eyes, it can help eye problems. It can also help with headaches, physical pain, liver problems, and throat infections.